Human Relations DOI: 10. 1177/0018726705061314 Volume 58(11): 1467–1494 Copyright laws © 2006 The Tavistock Institute ® SAGE Guides London, 1000 Oaks LOS ANGELES, New Delhi www.sagepublications.com
Complications, problems, concerns: The interpersonal construction of ‘leadership' Keith Grint
The invasion of Iraq was premised upon accounts from the situation which have proved unsustainable, but which includes not produced a change in the strategy from the coalition makes. Conventional backup accounts of leadership claim that accurate accounts of the context are a important element of the decision-making equipment but this kind of accounts seem incapable of outlining the decisions of those involved. An alternative style is developed that gets used to the Tame and Evil problem research of Rittell and Webber, in association with Etzioni's typology of compliance, to propose an alternate analysis that may be rooted in social constructivist approaches. This is certainly then used on three uneven case studies which claim that decision-makers are much more mixed up in constitution from the context than conventional backup theories enable, and that a persuasive performance of the circumstance then legitimizes a particular kind of action that often relates to the decision-maker's favored mode of engagement, rather than what ‘the situation' apparently demands. In effect, the circumstance is reconstructed as a politics arena not only a scientiﬁc lab.
A M S Big t R AIR CONDITIONER T
K E Sumado a WO 3rd there�s r D S
contingency management problems cultural constructivism battle
Human Relationships 58(11)
A lot of problems are so complex you need to be remarkably intelligent and well informed simply to be undecided about them. (Attributed to Laurence J. Peter)
The assumption that successful market leaders are those who respond many appropriately towards the demands of the speciﬁc scenario is very common. When most is relaxed successful leaders can afford to unwind, seek a consensus and make collective decisions for a leisurely pace. But when a crisis occurs the effective leader need to become decisive, demonstrate a ruthless capability to focus on the challenge and to ignore the siren cell phone calls of the sceptics and the cynics. Or, since Shakespeare place it rather more smoothly: In serenity there's nothing therefore becomes a man As simple stillness and humility: Nevertheless the blast of war blows inside our ears, Then simply imitate the action in the tiger; Stiffen the sinews, conjure up blood, Disguise good nature with hard-favour'd craze. (Henry Sixth is v, Act 3 Scene I) Quite what that problems might be generally seems to vary substantially, indeed, if calling a situation ‘a crisis' is necessarily the appropriate response seems to rely less about what the scenario allegedly ‘is' and more on how that condition can be dealt with most advantageously – or least disadvantageously – by the leadership. For example , the recent deaths of as much as 1000 Shia pilgrims on the bridge in northern Baghdad heading towards the Kadhimiya mosque, seems to have been caused by rumours of a suicide bomber within their midst. In retrospect, an effort to deny that there is a ‘crisis' and that everybody should approach off the bridge in an organised and managed manner could have limited the casualties. This is simply not to reject that a committing suicide bomber should indeed be a terrible threat, but rather you should suggest that the way you respond to particular situations is usually not dependant upon that scenario. 1 Similarly, when the talk about price drops it may be interpreted simply by stockholders like a crisis – but it may be that the CEO and the plank would rather identify the situation because ‘unstable' or ‘a restructuring' or whatever it is that calms the nerves from the stockholder and persuades him or her to hold on to their particular shares. The idea that the situation both does or should identify leadership
The social construction of ‘leadership'
is captured dramatically in Ibsen's enjoy, An opponent of the people, in which the evident contamination with the town's fresh public bath pushes Dr Thomas...
Recommendations: Allison, G. Essence of decision: Describing the Cuban missile catastrophe. Boston, MUM: Little Darkish, 1971. Bachrach, P. & Baratz, M. S. The two faces of power. American Political Science Review, 62, 56(4), 942–52. Berger, S. & Luckmann, T. The social construction of fact: A treatise in the sociology of knowledge. Backyard City, NYC: Doubleday, 1966. Blight, M. G. The shattered amazingly ball: Dread and learning in the Cuban Missile Crisis. Lanham, MD: Littleﬁeld Adams, 1992. Bratton, J., Grint, K. & Nelson, Deb. Organizational command. London: Thomson/Southwestern, 2004. Burr, V. Sociable constructionism, 2nd edn. London, uk: Routledge, 2003.
The social development of ‘leadership'
Case, P. & Grint, K. The chaotic rhetoric of reengineering: Supervision consultancy on the offensive. Record of Managing Studies, 98, 35(5), 1–21. Cooperrider, G. & Whitney, D. Participating for transform: Appreciative query, question, inquiry, interrogation. San Francisco, CALIFORNIA: Berrett Koehler, 1999. Courtwright, D. Capital t. Violent terrain: Single males and social disorder from the frontier to the inner city. Greater london: Harvard University or college Press, 1996. Covey, S i9000. Principle centred leadership. Ny: Simon & Schuster, 1990. Dahl, R. A. Whom governs? Fresh Haven, CT: Yale College or university Press, 1961. Etzioni, A. Modern businesses. London: Prentice Hall, 1964. Fielder, F. E. A theory of leadership effectiveness. New York: McGraw Hill, 1967. Frankel, Meters. High noon in the Cold Battle: Kennedy, Khrushchev and the Cuban Missile Crisis. New York: Ballantine Books, 2004. Freedland, J. The levee will break. Guardian, six September 2005. Gergen, M. Stubborn sort of fellow. Key Note presentation at the International Leadership Affiliation Conference, Seattle, WA, Nov 2002. Produced in Compass: A Journal on Leadership, 2003, available at: [http://www.ksg.harvard.edu/leadership/ COMPASS_Fall2003. html]. Gergen, K. An invite to sociable construction. London, uk: Sage, 1999. Gergen, M. & Gergen, K. (Eds) Social development: A target audience. London: Sage, 2003. Grint, K. Home repair of management. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001. Harris, P. Mother tips the balance against Bush. Observer, 21 years old August 2006. Heifetz, 3rd there�s r. Leadership with no easy answers. Cambridge, MOTHER: Harvard University Press, 1998. Hinsliff, G. Iraq drip has Blair back in the ﬁring line. Observer, 19 Sept 2004. Property, R. Path-goal theory of leadership: Lessons, legacy and a reformulated theory. Management Quarterly, 1996, 7(3), 323–52. House, L. & Dessler, G. The path-goal theory of leadership. In L. G. Hunt & T. L. Larson (Eds), Contingency approaches to management, pp. 29–55. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1974. Howieson, B. & Kahn, They would. Leadership, Management and Order: The ofﬁcer's trinity. In P. Watts. Gray & S. Cox (Eds), Atmosphere power leadership: Theory and practice. Norwich: HMSO, 2002. Johnson, B. Now we can sleep easy. Guardian, four November 2005. King, A. (Ed. ) Leaders' personas and the result of democratic elections. Oxford: Oxford University or college Press, 2002. Kirkpatrick, S. A. & Locke, Elizabeth. A. Management: Do qualities matter? The Executive, 1991, 5, 48–60. Kuhn, To. The framework of scientiﬁc revolutions. Chi town, IL: Chicago, il University Press, 1962. Lukes, S. Electrical power: A radical view. Greater london: Macmillan, mid 1970s. May, Electronic. R. Unusual victory: Hitler's conquest of France. London: I. N. Tauris, 2000. Mitchell, D. J. Real estate agents of atrocity. Basingstoke: Palgrave/Macmillan, 2004. Mitroff, I. I actually. Grading Bush: The president's job efficiency as the primary crisis supervisor of the nation, 2004, offered at: [http://www.mitroff.net/documents/Grading_ President_Bush. pdf]. Mitroff, My spouse and i. I. & Anagnos, G. Managing downturn before that they happen. Ny: Amacon, 2000. Nadler, Deb. & Tuschman, M. Rivalling by design and style: The power of company architecture. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997. Norton, A. Leo Strauss and the national politics of American empire. London: Yale University Press, 2004. Norton-Taylor, R. Axis of failing. Guardian, a few November 2005. Nye, J. S. Electrical power in the global information age: From realism to the positive effect. London: Routledge, 2004. Overy, R. Just how signiﬁcant was the battle? In P. Addison & J. A. Crang (Eds), The burning blue: A new history of the challenge of Britain. Greater london: Pimlico, 2k.
Man Relations 58(11)
Priest, G. & Light, J. Warfare helps sponsor terrorists, Slope told. Washington Post, 17 February 2006. Riddell, M. A betrayal of the persons. Guardian, eleven September june 2006. Rittell, They would. & Webber, M. Issues in a standard theory of planning. Plan Sciences, 1973, 4, 155–69. Rowlinson, Meters. & Hassard, J. Introduced of corporate culture: A brief history of the reputations of Cadbury. In E. Grint (Ed. ), Work and culture. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2150. Schattschneider, Electronic. F. The semi-sovereign persons: A realist view of democracy in America. New York: Reinhart and Winston, 1960. Sjöstrand, S. -E., Sandberg, M. & Tyrstrup, M. (Eds) Invisible managing: The cultural construction of leadership. London: Thompson Learning, 2001. Steele, J. The cheers had been all ours. Guardian, 14 February june 2006. Steinem, G. I'm a hopeaholic. Irritating George Rose bush can do about it. Protector, 13 Sept 2005. Stogdill, R. Meters. Personal factors associated with management: A review of the literature. Journal of Psychology, 1948, 25, 35–71. Stogdill, L. M. Guide of leadership: A survey of theory and study. New York: Cost-free Press, mid 1970s. The Fog of Conflict. Documentary in Robert T. McNamara, described by Errol Morris, 2004. Tuchman, M. The drive of folly: From Troy to Vietnam. London: Papermac, 1996. Vidal, J. Local climate change and pollution will be killing millions, says study. Guardian, six October 2005. Watters, M. Mission command word: Auftragstakti. Daily news at the Leadership Symposium, RAF Cranwell, 13 May 2004. Weick, K. E. The collapse of sensemaking in organizations: The Mann Gulch Disaster. Management Science Quarterly, 1993, 37, 628–52. Whitaker, B. Political figures are voted the planet's least trusted people. Mom or dad, 15 Sept. 2010 2005. Wright Mills, C. The sociological imagination. Oxford: Oxford School Press, late 1950s. Younge, G. President was told in July of Civil Warfare risk in Iraq. Mom or dad, 17 Sept. 2010 2004. Yukl, G. A. Leadership in organizations, sixth edn. London, uk: Prentice Hall, 2005. Zaleznik, A. Managers and frontrunners: Are they distinct? ' Harvard Business Review, 1977, 55(5), 67–80.
Keith Grint can be Professor of Leadership Research and Representative of the Lancaster Leadership Center at Lancaster University Administration School. This individual worked in numerous industries pertaining to 10 years before becoming a great academic. Having been a Research Other at Nufﬁeld College, Oxford before he taught by Brunel School for six years. Then he returned to Oxford University or college where he taught for more than a decade at Templeton College and was Research Director of the Saïd Business School. He could be a Fellow of the Sunningdale Institute, an investigation arm in the UK's Countrywide School of presidency. He features published twelve books and also 60 articles on management, management as well as the sociology of work. His newest book can be Leadership: Limitations and possibilities (Palgrave, 2005). [E-mail: k. [email protected] ac. uk]
PRO – The benefits of home-based surveillance by the NSA outweigh the harms. DEFINITIONS: The term benefit is identified as, " being useful or helpful to (someone…...Read