Connection Style and Cultural Features in High/Low Context Communication Cultures: An instance Study of Finland, The japanese and India
Shoji Nishimura1, Anne Nevgi2 and Seppo Tella3
1 Waseda College or university, Japan
two Department of Education, School of Helsinki
3 Department of Systems of Education, University of Helsinki
People by different countries communicate in ways that often result in misunder-standings. The argument, based upon Hall's theory of high/low context ethnicities (1959, 1966, 1976, 1983), is that these differences happen to be related to different communication ethnicities. We believe Japan and Finland are part of high framework cultures, while In-dia is usually closer to a minimal context lifestyle with certain high framework cultural features. We deal that Finnish communication lifestyle is changing towards a lesser context tradition. Hall's theory is accompanied with Hofstede's (2008) individuality vs . collectivism dimension and with Lewis's (1999, 2005) cultural types of communication and Western vs . Eastern principles. Examples of Finland, Japan and India are presented.
Keywords: high/low circumstance culture; connection style; traditions; cultural features; individualism; collectivism; Finland, The japanese; India.
Purpose of This Article
It truly is generally identified that people coming from different countries tend to communi-cate in different ways. We all argue that these types of differences are definitely more related to different communication cultures than other differences. Being aware of these kinds of differences generally leads to better comprehension, fewer misunderstandings and mutual admiration. Our aim in this article is always to describe, review and translate communication design and selected cultural features in Finland, Japan and India.
We all base our arguments about Edward T. Hall's idea (1959, 1966, 1976, 1983) of high circumstance (HC) and low framework (LC) civilizations. This concept features proved valid and within transcultural research (Kim, Griddle, & Playground, 1998). We also make reference to Lewis's (1999, 2005) ethnic categories of conversation and Traditional western vs . Far eastern values, and to Hofstede's (2008) collectivismвЂ“individualism sizing. As far as we understand, no past study provides discussed these types of three countries together through the aforemen-tioned views.
This article desires to15325 contribute to language education, transcultural commu-nication, transcultural studies and multiculturalism.
Lounge (1959) identifies culture as the way of life of a persons: the total of their discovered behaviour habits, attitudes and materials points. Culture is often subconscious; an invisible control mechanism operating in each of our thoughts (Hall, 1983). In the view, we become aware of this by exposure to a different traditions. Members of a specific society internalise the ethnical components of that society and act inside the limits because set out with what is вЂculturally acceptable' (Hall, 1983, s. 230).
Hofstede's (1980, 1991) theory aims to make clear cultural distinctions through selected dimensions, just like power range, individualism vs . collectivism, concern avoidance, and masculinity versus femininity. Of such, we use the individualism versus collectivism aspect. This sizing is described by Hofstede (2008) because " the degree to which persons are integrated into teams. On the individualist side, we find societies when the ties among individuals are loose вЂ¦ Within the collectivist side, we find societies in which persons from birth onwards will be integrated into strong, cohesive in-groups, often prolonged families вЂ¦вЂќ.
Context is identified as the information that surrounds a conference; it is inextricably bound program the meaning of this event: " The nationalities of the world can be compared on the scale via high to low contextвЂќ (Hall & Hall, 1990, p. 6).
Large vs . Low Context Cultures
Hall (1976) suggested the categorisation of cultures into high circumstance versus low context nationalities in order to understand their standard differences in connection style and cultural problems....
References: Chella, G. (2007). The changing face of Indian job culture. The Hindu Business Online. Retrieved February 15, 08 from http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/2007/09/10/stories/2007091051810900.htm
Goodman, Ur., & Refsing, K
Gudykunst, W. B., & Ting-Toomey, S. (1988). Culture and interpersonal communica-tion. Newbury Area, CA: Sage.
Hall, Elizabeth. (1959). The silent language. New York: Doubleday.
Hall, At the. (1966). The hidden dimension. New York: Doubleday.
Hall, At the. (1976). Over and above culture. New york city: Doubleday.
Lounge, E. (1983). The party of existence: The additional dimension of the time. New York: Doubleday.
Hall, E., & Lounge, M. (1990). Understanding ethnic differences: Germans, French and Americans. Yarmouth: Intercultural Press.
Hofstede, G. (1980). Tradition 's effects: International differences in work-related ideals. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Hofstede, G. (2008). A summary of my personal ideas about national culture differences Reti-reved February 20, 2008, by http://feweb.uvt.nl/center/hofstede/page3.htm
Kapoor, S., Hughes, P., Baldwin, J
Ellie, D., Baking pan, Y., & Park, H. S. (1998). High- versus low-context tradition: A compari-son of Chinese, Korean, and American ethnicities. Psychology & Marketing, 15(6), 507вЂ“521.
Kyoto Tourism Authorities (2007). Kyoto Travel Information. Retrieved September 15, 2007, from
Lewis, Ur. D. (1999). When nationalities collide: Handling successfully around cultures. (Revised edition. ) London: Nicholas Brealey.
Lewis, R. Deb. (2005). Finland, cultural single wolf. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press.
Maynard, S. T. (1997). Japanese communication terminology and believed in circumstance. Honolulu: University of Hawai 'i Press.
Pakiam, A. (2007, December. 17). " Face-savingвЂќ in cross-cultural conversation. The Hindu BusinessLine. Gathered February 25, 2008, by http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/manager/2007/12/17/stories/2007121750321100.htm
Pryor, B., Retainer, J., & Boehringer, T
Salo-Lee, D. (2007). TГ¤mГ¤n pГ¤ivГ¤n " suomalaisuusвЂќ. [Today's вЂFinnishness']. Re-trieved Feb 14, 08, from
Sen, A. (2005). The argumentative American indian: Writings about Indian history, culture and identity. London: Penguin Catalogs.
Wikipedia: 'languages' of India. Retrieved February 10, 08, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Languages_of_India
PRO – The benefits of home-based surveillance by the NSA outweigh the harms. DEFINITIONS: The term benefit is identified as, " being useful or helpful to (someone…...Read